Suppose that you have a good command of the basics of Greek grammar and have acquired sufficient knowledge of elementary vocabulary. Nevertheless, when you read authentic texts in ancient Greek, it will often be useful, because of their lexical wealth and semantic density, to consult a dictionary. What do you find on the Web to help you?
At the Perseus site, you can search the big LSJ online, the famous Greek-English dictionary! It is tremendously useful, as it offers some possibilities that were unthinkable with the paper-and-ink version. When you look up a word, you automatically get information on its frequency, a list of synonyms and a list of co-occurring words. But the really cool thing is that you can look at the definition of a word, see where it was used in Greek literature, and click on the reference to see the word in the original text; another mouse-click shows you the translation. Moreover, you can perform reverse searches by typing the last letters of a word and selecting from a pop-up-window ’at the end of dictionary entries’. Another facility is to type in an English word and find the Greek equivalent: click here to search English definitions in the Greek Lexicon. Only from a scholarly point of view the LSJ-online is not as up-to-date as the ninth printed edition, which remains to be consulted for serious lexical study.
Thanks to the Diogenes-software, Liddell-Scott-Jones can be consulted off-line.
Diogenes is a tool for searching and browsing the databases of ancient texts, primarily in Latin and Greek, that are published by the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae and the Packard Humanities Institute. […] Thanks to Perseus, Diogenes comes equipped with morphological analysis of Greek and Latin and Greek and Latin dictionaries. Click on a word and see its morphology and definition. […] Again, thanks to Perseus, Diogenes can do morphologically aware searching. […] Restricting searches to specific authors and works.
If you are not interested in the full information given in the big LSJ, you can, starting from the same search screen but clicking on ’ML’, call up the Middle Liddell entry (if one exists). For school use and in view of the reading of the great classical authors this dictionary is certainly a reliable tool, but the entries do not contain hyperlinks with exact references to exemplary passages.
The University of Chicago Library offers here an electronic full-text facsimile of S. C. Woodhouse,English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, London, 1910. The dictionary cannot only be browsed but can be searched for English words, combinations of words or letter strings: for each search the relevant page(s) are shown as top quality digital images, so no Greek font has to be installed. Because of the multiplicity of English entries and of the proposed Greek translations this is an invaluable help for all those who want to train in Greek prose composition.
Viewing and consulting this on line abridged dictionary (but still 990 pages!) requires Microsoft Internet Explorer version 5.0 or higher as well as the plug-in DjVu, which can be downloaded from the site. No word or text search tool is available as such but the dictionary can be browsed by clicking on one of the letters of the alphabet in the menu and selecting one of the introductory words of the pages in the left bar. Each page is shown as a digital image which can be zoomed in, so no Greek font is needed. A particular merit of this dictionary, besides the six tables of numerals, measures and monetary units at the end, is the presence of a great number of inflected forms among the lemmata with a reference to the basic ’dictionary’ form.
Autenrieth’s famous Homeric lexicon for use in schools and colleges (transl. with additions and corr. by R.P. Keep, London 1979) is presented here online with the same facilities as the LSJ online. Looking into Perseus’ Word Study Tool for a Homeric word, the user is now confronted with references not only to the Liddell-Scott and to the Middle Liddell but also to this lexicon, which is more concise and more focusing on Homer than the LSJ and therefore more accessible for the ordinary reader of the great epics.
An online interface of the Archimedes Project at the Harvard University, providing a collection of dictionaries including Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin and Sumerian. The interface offers direct access to three Greek dictionaries: Liddell-Scott-Jones: A Greek-English Lexicon, Autenrieth: A Homeric Dictionary and Bonitz: Index Aristotelicus. The two latter are still in an experimental stage. The two former are also available at the Perseus site. As they appear here without all the Perseus facilities, they are primarily digital replacements of the paper versions. You can only search one dictionary at a time. Greek searches must be entered in Beta Code with accents and breathings, but the search results can be displayed in Greek fonts.
This scholarly dictionary (ed. Berlin 1969) can be consulted here online with the same facilities as the LSJ online. Looking into Perseus’ Word Study Tool for a Pindaric word, the user can now select references not only to the Liddell-Scott and to the Middle Liddell but also to this lexicon, which is an indispensable tool for research into Pindar. So, in contrast to Autenrieth’s Homeric lexicon listed above, this is a specialized work for scholars, recording systematically all relevant passages from Pindar where a given word occurs.
This old but comprehensive dictionary is also offered at the operone-website.
Die ersten beiden Bände des »Handwörterbuchs der griechischen Sprache« von Wilhelm Pape (1807–1854) wurden für den wissenschaftlichen Gebrauch erarbeitet und erschließen mit nahezu 99.000 Hauptstichwörtern den gesamten Reichtum des klassischen Griechisch. Das Wörterbuch bietet neben den Übersetzungen Angaben zur Etymologie, zum Bedeutungswandel und zur Phraseologie. Sein besonderer Vorzug liegt im detaillierten und übersichtlichen Nachweis der Bedeutungsschattierungen einzelner Stichwörter und grammatischer Konstruktionen. Zahlreiche Zitate aus den Schriften der klassischen Autoren dienen als Belege und unterstützen zugleich das Verständnis der Bedeutungsvarianten.
This on-line Greek-English and English-Greek lexicon is said to be "based on Thayer’s and Smith’s Bible Dictionary plus others", but I have not been able to trace which dictionaries are meant here. At any rate it is a useful tool for the study of New Testament vocabulary. Typing an English word yields a whole series of context-related English translations along with their Greek equivalents: by clicking them you get an English definition of the Greek words as well as references to all the relevant passages in the New Testament, which you can see in English with another mouse-click. Moreover, you can listen to the right pronunciation of each Greek word. Alternatively, when you type the beginning of a Greek word in transliteration, you get a list of clickable Greek words, which lead you again to the information just described.
Wordbase Greek ♠ †
(by Dag Kihlman): this sophisticated downloadable training program includes a dictionary of New Testament Greek consisting of flashcards of all 5393 words of the New Testament. You cannot only choose between an English-Greek-English and a Swedish-Greek-Swedish version but also select a glossary of all the words in the New Testament, listed according to their frequency (Top5393.wbg): when you have learnt the first 400 words you recognize approximately 84% of the words in the New Testament! There are numerous ways to consult these glossaries, simply by browsing them in order of frequency or in alphabetical order (both in Greek and in translation) or by doing searches for a whole Greek word or for the beginning, the end or any part of a Greek word; but you can start from an English or Swedish word or word part as well. There is, however, one inconvenience: when a search yields multiple results, only one flashcard is shown; so to get the other results you should repeat the same search several times!
(by Gabriel Teulières): this training program contains a small but charming French-Greek-French dictionary, limited to about thousand words from the basic vocabulary of classical Attic Greek. By browsing the dictionary and clicking on a Greek word you immediately get a French translation, usually consisting of several alternatives. To use the French-Greek utility you have to type a French word (some 3000 words are possible) or a string of characters and the program returns all the Greek words in the definition of which the word or string occurs: for example when you enter ’boire’, the result includes both πίνω and κύλιξ (’vase, coupe pour boire’). The author has based his selection of Greek words partly on his own class practice and partly on Cauquil, G., Guillaumin, J.-Y., Carrière, J.-C., Vocabulaire de base du grec: alphabétique, fréquentiel, étymologique, ARELAB Besançon 1985. Apart from the dictionary the user has access to a very enjoyable alphabetical list of 100 first names derived from Greek (Margaret, Philip, etc.) with the corresponding etymologies and to a lexicon with only 328 words of elementary vocabulary based on an official word list for high schools supervised by the French Department of Education.
(by J.R. Somolinos and J.L. Rodríguez): No, you cannot consult online this splendid new Greek dictionary, of which five volumes have now been published under the direction of Professor F. R. Adrados! The authors only grant you access to one page of their last volume in PDF-format (δεκάλογος-δεκάπεδος). The rest of the website consists of information on the project and of some additional, chiefly bibliographical material that is only of interest for specialists in lexicography. The most interesting of these supplements is the Bibliografía de palabras griegas, third supplement to the Repertorio bibliográfico de la lexicografía griega (RBLG), redactado por P. Boned (Diccionario Griego-Español. Anejo III), Madrid 1998. It is a long alphabetical list of Greek words, which have been the object of recent lexicographic studies (about the last five years), each of them followed by the relevant bibliographical references. For the Greek characters the SPIonic font is used.
(by Francisco Cortés Gabaudan): this site consists of two alphabetical glossaries that can be browsed by clicking on any letter of the alphabet, one of medical terms, the other of lexemes (mostly used as prefixes or suffixes in compound terms) such as thrombo-, bio-, pan(to)-, etc. In the former list the words are given in Spanish - almost all of them are in fact international - and followed by their meaning and etymology. In the latter the lexemes, which are Greek apart from a small Latin minority, are followed by a translation and a sample of modern derivations. The Greek words are presented with exceptionally clear GIF-files.
this website offers a Greek dictionary (including New Testament and koiné vocabulary) with definitions in English, French and Spanish. It contains approximately 25000 entries. The program enables you to limit the results of your search according to one or more grammatical types. Secondly this website offers a morphological analysis tool: given an inflected form, the program finds out its dictionary form. Unfortunately, interjections, expletive particles and complex contractions are not yet included. Finally this website contains a generator of inflection charts: you can create inflection charts of any word selected on the "dictionary" tab (verbs, nouns and adjectives). The program also offers a range of independent charts (PDF), which contain fixed lists of words (articles, pronouns and conjunctions). All this is presented in a well-organized way. In order to enter Greek text, you have to use Beta Code, an easy way to transliterate Greek words (explained on the website).
This website offers a Mycenaean (Linear B) - English glossary. After a brief foreword on the historical background of this writing system, the actual glossary is presented: first there is the original word as written on the tablet, next comes the transcription in the Latin writing system, continuing with the restoration of the genuine Greek word and finally an English translation (succinct!). Please mind that this dictionary is suggestive and doesn’t contain all the words from the tablets. The glossary is presented as a PDF-file, so you’ll need Acrobat Reader to consult it.
This elementary dictionary permits queries in and to both Ancient and Modern Greek. The left-hand-side form translates words from Greek to English - here you may type your query using its Roman transliteration - whereas the right-hand-side form translates words from English to Greek. To perform your query in Ancient Greek you have to select the appropriate checkbox. However, the results of such queries are rather disappointing: when I typed ’table’ or ’quiet’, the program replied: "The dictionary did not find any matching words", and as a translation of ’love’ it only gave &# 7936;γαπάω, not φιλέω. For the accentuation of the Ancient Greek words the one-accent system of Modern Greek is adopted. So this dictionary should be considered rather a curiosity than a serious language tool.
An alphabetic list in two pages (A-L and M-Z) of about 100 basic Greek elements or roots from which thousands of English words have been derived. All of them are given here in transliteration, mostly in the form of prefixes and suffixes of English words. This is only a small part of the cross references, relative words, and definitions that are available at the Cross-Reference Search Dictionary that specializes in English words that are derived from Latin and Greek origins. However, to consult this dictionary you have to subscribe as a paying member!
(by Torrey Philemon): an alphabetical list of specific epic terms, given in transliteration, with English explanations. From a scholarly viewpoint the site is worthless - the author admits that he does not know Greek but has derived his definitions from some modern books on the Iliad - but for some words interesting links are added to more specialized websites.